Celtic invasion of Greece; Succes or failure?

The celtic invasion of Greece during the early years of the 3rd century BC has spurred a great deal of controversy. Many historians and schollars deem it a crushing defeat of the invading force since they failed to stablish a permanent presence within central Greece. But was it their purpose?

Other schollars consider that the fauilure theory is only sustainable if occupation was the celts objetive, but what if it wasn´t? The celts leaded by Brennus assasinated the Ptolomeus, the king of Macedon, anahilating his royal line and thus creating havoc and chaos within the real for generations. They also managed to destroys Lisimacho´s kingdom of Thrace, sacked Heraclide and it´s sourrandings and lay waste to the countryside up to Delphi. They were eventually driven off at the sacred city but was it a greek victory? The killing and looting was considerable from the part of the celts and their armies were not destroyed, but what remained of them returned to their homelands with their plunder. And here lies the key for understanding this event. They were not looking for conquest, but for wealth.

And even in this alleged defeate one of the warbands managed to settle in central Anatolia which eventualy was named after them, these were the Galatinas. These men founded a kingdom which received payment for peace from such powers as Pergamus and Pontus. Other made their way to Egipt and became part of the royal guard of the lagid pharaos, such was the fame adquired by the celts during their greek expedition. Then again, if they managed to drestroy one kingdom, lay waste over Greece and Macedon and hold to ransom several anatolian cities and kingdoms, How was that a defeat?

The answer to that question remains open but one cannot avoid to ask if it may have something to do with the fact that all historical reports about the event came from the attacked and the plundered…


-Celtic settlements of Eastern Europe (2013, Novemeber, 15). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 January 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtic_settlement_of_Eastern_Europe

-Peter Levi´s translation of Pausanias´ Guide for the Greece 10.19.4-23.9 (2012, August, 06). In http://www.livius.org/. Retrieved 17 January 2014, from http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi_t11.html
Brennos II sacking Delphi

Where are Earhart, Noolan and the “Electra”?

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What happened to Amelia Earhart? It is one of the biggest mysteries of the aviation, this strange disappearance of a plane with two people that where ending his fly around the world has produce as result some hypothesis.

The real facts are that Earhart and Noolan were flying around the world in a Lockheed “Electra”, when in the third period of the flight (from New Guinea to Howland), they were supposed to land in Howland on the 2nd July of 1937 and follow latter to Hawaii. The plane never landed on the island.

The coastguard that was given communication by radio to “the Electra” said that they where next to the landing place but they couldn’t see the island. Nobody knows why (it is supposed to technical problems) but the radio communications started to fail that day, the last talk of the Electra´s crew was to notify that they were running out of fuel.246px-Amelia_Earhart_flight_route.svg

After losing communications coastguards and land stuff relished that they weren’t going to appear. 10 boats, 65 planes and 3.000 people made a search with no results. The official version said that Earhart and Noolan crashed in the pacific ocean next to the island, but no corpses and no plane had been found.

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Historical accuracy and/or authenticity?

Ryan SpartacusIs it truly possible to create a historical film that´s both historicaly accurate and yet portray an authentic and compelling view of the timeline depicted?  Many a time we think that if a film contains too much detail about the period in which is set up or follows the historical events too closely it will come out dull and somehow documentary like. But is it the excess or detail or the inabiliti to portray them?

Some argue that films and tv series need to detour from the real facts in order to create an interesting and moving story for the viewers, and therefore achieving that balance between historical facts and creative liberties . But one should really question wether the detours taken are aimed to provided a more deep understanding of the times depicted or just cheap bait to attract as much viewers as possible. Is there really no way to create a historically accurate movie with a compelling storyline?

At least one case comes to my mind when I think about historical accuracy and amazing storytelling, Save private Ryan (1998). A truly compelling storyline combined with the most authentic setting I´ve ever seen. This example really makes me think that the sex or gory scenes from such series as Spartacus: Blood and Sand (2010-13) or films as 300 (2006) are plain unnecesary to the plot and serve only the aforementioned purpose of bait.

However it is true that one does not have to stick completely to the known facts to stay true to history, but the detours must be respectfull and backed up by a thorough research. If anyone would like to see a really good historical research procces just check the D-Day 60th Anniversary commemorative edition DVD of Saving Private Ryan. If you like history and cinema you´re in for a treat.


-Carl Bennet. (2010, February, 27). In http://authenticcinema.blogspot.com.es/. Retrieved 17 January 2014, from  http://authenticcinema.blogspot.com.es/ .

-TJWEST3. (2012, January, 05). In http://historyloversdelight.wordpress.com, Retrieved 17 January 2014, from http://historyloversdelight.wordpress.com/2012/01/05/accuracy-vs-authenticity-in-historical-film-and-television/

9/11: tragedy or oportunity?

9/11 scammer

It is bad news to read in a The New York Times that a tragedy such as the one of the 11th of September, was taken as an advantage by a few. Some police officers and firefighters have retired because they were not able to continue with their job after the shock of the Twin Tower’s disaster. The thing is that is has recently been discovered that a few of these retirements were a scam.

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Athletic Clubaren Historia

athletic club

1898tik Lehoiaren orrua ozen

Bilboko Athletic Kluba, ofizialki Athletic Club, lehen mailan dabilen futboleko euskal talde da. 1898. urtean sortu zuten Bilbo inguruan zenbiltzan ingeles langileak. Euskal Herriko futbol talderik zaharrena da, baita arrakastatsuena ere historian zehar. Betidanik egon da lehen mailan, Real Madrid eta FC Barcelonarekin batera. Guztira 8 aldiz izan da ligako eta txapeldun, 24 aldiz Errege Kopako txapeldun eta nazioateko txapelketatan ez du inoiz sona handiko ezer irabazi.

Lerro hauetan, iraganean izan duen bilakaera aztertuko dugu, modu arinean, mugimendu eta lorpen eta porrota handienak ikusiz. Horrela, gaur egunean futbol talde umil eta langile honek gizartean duen garrantzia ikusten utziko digu. Egia esan, erabat bitxia da ezagutzea zelan taldea futbolaren arrakastan dabilen eta nola iraun duen aurrera egitea jaso dituen porrota eta arrakasten ostean. Xelebrea ere bada ezagutzea talde honen filosofia eta lan egiteko modua.  Berezitasun nabarmen baten isla baita, harrobian bertan eta Euskal Herriko klubetan hazitako jokalariak soilik joka dezakete.

INGALATERRATIK BILBORA (1898-1900)                                                                                                     campa de los ingleses

XIX. mendearen amaieran, Bizkaiko industrializazioak erabat baldintzatzen zuen gizartea. Garapen industriala oso handia zen eta Bilboko errekaren ingurura Ingalaterratik barkuak heltzen ziren minerala kargatzera. Behin, ingeles langile hauek Erresuma Batutik ekarritako baloia erabiltzen hasi ziren eta 1898an bigotedun zazpi gizonek Athletic Club sortzen dute. Juan Astorquia da taldearen buru. “Campa de los Ingleses” inguruan jokatzeko aukera gutxi eta Santa Eufemian, Neguritik oso urbil, aurkitzen duten euren jokatzeko lekua.


1o urte pasa izan ziren kluba sortu zela eta San Mames bereganatu zuten jokatzeko zelai, lehenago aritutakoak txiki geratzen hasi baitziren. Urte hauetan, Rafael Moreno Aranzadi “Pichichi”ren figura gailentzen da beste guztien gainetik.


Lafuente, Iraragorri, Bata (Pichichi trofeoaren irabazlea 1930/31 denboraldian), Chirri II eta Gorostiza (Pichichi trofeoaren irabazlea 1929/30. eta 1931/32. urteetan) izan ziren garai hauetako jokalaririk arrakastatsuenak. Frederick Pentland-en aginduetara bi liga txapelketa bereganatu zituen 1929-30 eta 1930-31 denboraldietan. 1928an Liga sortzen da eta Athletic bertan parte hartzen hasten da.


Gerra Zibililak ekarritako ondorioen erruz isiltasuna nagusitu zen euskal gizartean. Suntsitutakoa berreraikitako garaia izan zen hau, baina beti debeku eta errepresioak zapalduta. Arrazionamendu orria, erbestea, gosea, denetariko miserien garaia. Hala ere, Bilboko talde nagusiaren baitan bigarren aurrelari historikoak hartzen dute protagonismoa: Iriondo, Venacio, Zarra, Panizo eta Gainza. Liga bat eta bost kopa bereganatu zituen.


José Ángel Iribar Kortajarena, Athletic Clubaren historiako eta baita euskal eta espainiar futbol selekzioetako figura esanguratsuenetakoa dugu. Athletickekin guztira 614 partidu jokatu zituen 18 denboralditan. 1962 eta 1980. urteen bitartean defendatu zuen Athleticken atea eta bi kopa eta UEFA txapelketan azpitxapeldun izatera eraman zuen taldea. 1999. urterarte atezainen entrenatzaile izaten jarraitu zuen eta gaur egunean oraindik ere aktiboki jarraitzen du taldean lanean.

POR EL RIO NERBION BAJABA UNA GABARRA                                                                                gabarra

1983an Athletickek bere zortzigarren Aliron kantatu zuen, maiatzaren 1ean Las Palmasen. Bilbon izan zuten jendearen parteko harrera edo ongietorria erabatekoa izan zen. Erreka inguruan milioi bat pertsona inguru batu ziren, Athleticken historiara pasa den argazkia eta garaipena. Dani, Sarabia, Argote eta Clemente izan ziren azken garaipen handi honetara eraman zituen protagonistak.


  •  Agiriano, Jon. Una cuestión de orgullo: las 24 copas del Athletic Club. Bilbao, Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa, 2009.

Eiffel: much more than a tower

One may like or dislike it but who does not seen an image of this landmark?

Expo universelle 1990 tx

From the very beginning the construction of the Eiffel Tower raised harsh criticism amongst the French society. As Weidmann and Vermette (2000) wrote in their book France at the dawn of the twenty-first century, trends and transformations: “the Eiffel Tower itself was the subject of tremendous vituperation by critics who claimed that it would disfigure Paris forever. The tower, built for the 1889 Exposition Universelle to commemorate the first centennial of the Revolution, endured years of ridicule until it firmly entered consciousness as the singular symbol of Paris”. French society did not like it at the beginning and it led to rejection and disgust. However, despite all opposition, the construction of the Tower continued. Continue reading

Chaeronea (338BC); the coming of age of Alexander the Great

As Peter Green puts it “After Chaeronea, it is said, the Macedonians began to speak about Philip as their general, but of Alexander as their king”. The battle meant a turning point for a young prince looking for the glory to justify his ascension to the throne.

Though it has been studied thoroughly, seldom has it been considered the relevance it had for the young Alexander, who had to fight his first major battle alongside his father with 18 years. For Philip it was his final victory against the Athenians and the Thebans, his greatest obstacles for dominating Greece, but for Alexander it was the day he became a true warrior and gained fame as such.

Alexander commanded the cavalry and played a key role crushing the left wing of the allied army. Spencer C. Tucker further states that it was “an awesome responsability for an 18-year-old and a measure of the confidence Philip had in his son´s military ability”. The fame and glory achieved that day by Alexander ensured he would sit on the throne of his father once he was gone. This was instrumental for him since Philipe did marry many times and had several doughters who possed if not a direct threat, due to their gendre, a potential one.

Therefore when the battle ended Alexander had gained as much as his father. He secured his position in the royal line, gained invaluable experience in the battlefield and understood the nature and meaning of a battle in all of its horror, chaos and death. Chaeronea


-Green, Peter. Alexander of Macedon, 356-323 B.C.: A Historical Biography. University of California Press, 08/01/2013.

– Tucker, Spencer C. Battles that changed History: An Encyclopedia of World Conflict. ABC-CLIO, 2010.

-Battle of Chaeronea (338BC) (2013, October, 29). InWikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16 January 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chaeronea_(338_BC)

Diodorus of Sicily´s translation by MichaelCrowford and David Whitehead (2013, June, 13). In http://www.livius.org/. Retrieved 16 January 2014, from http://www.livius.org/aj-al/alexander/alexander_t42.html