As Ana Vazquez Hoys explains in her article El Código de Hammurabi,Babilonia( 1792-1750,Cronolog.media) published in her own blog, in the Ancient Near East cultures, gods were who pronounced laws to mankind, and thats why the law were sacred. She is an expert in History, being teacher at the UNED, in the Ancient History department.
The Hammurabi Code was given by Utu-Samash, god of the sun, god of justice, who directly gave the laws to the babylonian king (1790-1750 B.C.).
It is the oldest code that we have today. It was discovered by the archeologist Mecqenem in the city of Susa. The code was sculpted in a black diorite stone. It is dated on 1753 b.C,written in an acadian language with cuneiform script.
The king ordered to copy the code in every square of every city so as all the citizens knew the law and its punishments. It consisted of a collection of 282 laws,aimed to preserve the order in his kingdom.Nevertheless, this was not the only reason,since during his conquests, he needed to unify the different territories included in his empire.
Some of the laws were reviewed and changed, and some others were eliminated before elaborating the final list.
It was supposed to be an equal code, because it was applied in the same way for all the people, no matter if they were rich or poor, nobody escapes the law.
Ana Vázquez Hoys, El Código de Hammurabi,Babilonia ( 1792 1750,Cronolog.media) published on the 1st of August on 2009: http://www.bloganavazquez.com/2009/08/01/el-codigo-de-hammurabibabilonia-1792-1750cronogmedia/
General Knowledge and Current Affairs: http://www.w3gk.com/2013/12/king-hammurabi-king-of-law.html